What is Cyclone?
A cyclone is a huge storm that originates at sea, characterized by a low-pressure center that can be vast in size and strong wind spiraling inward and upward. They are intense, spinning circular storm systems. They are intense to produce sustained gale force winds of at least 63km/h on an average that rotates in clockwise directions. They likely occur between November and April. The events of Global Warming and Climate change have increased the possibility of a cyclone to occur more often at a large scale.
How does Cyclone form?
The cyclone is formed when a warm temperature of the sea reaches a threshold level and the wind structure is rising. Cyclone form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. They require the difference in speed of rotation of the Earth at different latitudes to gather momentum as they spin, and they can form either side of the equator. Warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface. As this air moves up and away from the ocean surface, it leaves is less air near the surface. Basically, as the warm air rises, it causes an area of lower air pressure below. Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes into the low-pressure area. Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues… As the warmed, moist air rises and cools the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean’s heat and water evaporating from the ocean surface. As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the center. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye. The eye of the cyclone is the center of the cyclone where the focus lies. The areas surrounding the eye will be most affected because of the strong wind. the cyclone is rising with a clockwise direction at the bottom and an anti-clockwise direction as it rises to the sky, forming a Cyclone.
Cyclones usually weaken when they hit land because they are no longer being “fed” by the energy from the warm ocean waters. However, they often move far inland, dumping many centimeters of rain and causing lots of wind damage before they die out completely.